Book Details

OPENSOURCES Voices from the Open Source Revolution

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  • Author: Eric S. Raymond

Description

Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution is a book published by O'Reilly Media. It is an anthology of essays written by luminaries of the open source and free software movements. The essays variously chronicle aspects of free software history, describe various philosophical positions, or sketch groups important to the movements.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 8
Chris DiBona, Sam Ockman, and Mark Stone
1.1 What Is Free Software and How Does It Relate
to Open Source? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.2 What Is Open Source Software? . . . . . . . . . 9
1.3 The Dark Side of the Force . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.4 Use the Source, Luke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.5 Innovation Through the Scientific Method . . . . 10
1.6 Perils to Open Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.7 Motivating the Open Source Hacker . . . . . . . 13
1.8 The Venture and Investment Future of Linux . . . 13
1.9 Science and the New Renaissance . . . . . . . . 14
2 A Brief History of Hackerdom 16
Eric S. Raymond
2.1 Prologue: The Real Programmers . . . . . . . . 16
2.2 The Early Hackers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.3 The Rise of Unix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.4 The End of Elder Days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.5 The Proprietary Unix Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.6 The Early Free Unixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.7 The Great Web Explosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3 Twenty Years of Berkeley Unix 21
Marshall Kirk McKusick
3.1 Early History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.2 Early Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.3 VAX Unix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.4 DARPA Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.5 4.2BSD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.6 4.3BSD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.7 Networking, Release 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.8 4.3BSD-Reno . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.9 Networking, Release 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.10 The Lawsuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.11 4.4BSD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.12 4.4BSD-Lite, Release 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

4 The Internet Engineering Task Force 28
Scott Bradner
4.1 The History of the IETF . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.2 IETF Structure and Features . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.3 IETF Working Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.4 IETF Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.5 The IETF Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.6 Open Standards, Open Documents, and Open
Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5 The GNU Operating System and the Free Software
Movement 31
Richard Stallman
5.1 The First Software-Sharing Community . . . . . 31
5.2 The Collapse of the Community . . . . . . . . . 31
5.3 A Stark Moral Choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.4 Free as in Freedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.5 GNU Software and the GNU System . . . . . . . 32
5.6 Commencing the Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.7 The First Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.8 GNU Emacs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.9 Is a Program Free for Every User? . . . . . . . . 33
5.10 Copyleft and the GNU GPL . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.11 The Free Software Foundation . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.12 Free Software Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.13 Technical Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.14 Donated Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.15 The GNU Task List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.16 The GNU Library GPL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.17 Scratching an Itch? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.18 Unexpected Developments . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.19 The GNU HURD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.20 Alix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.21 Linux and GNU/Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.22 Challenges in Our Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.23 Secret Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.24 Non-Free Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.25 Software Patents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.26 Free Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.27 We Must Talk About Freedom . . . . . . . . . . 37

5.28 “Open Source” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.29 Try! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6 Future of Cygnus Solutions 39
Michael Tiemann
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
6.2 Cygnus in the Early Years . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
6.3 GNUPro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
6.4 Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
6.5 Getting Funded Beyond Open Source— eCos . 45
6.6 Reflections and Vision of the Future . . . . . . . 46
7 Software Engineering 47
Paul Vixie
7.1 The Software Engineering Process . . . . . . . . 47
7.2 Testing Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7.3 Open Source Software Engineering . . . . . . . . 49
7.4 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
8 The Linux Edge 51
Linus Torvalds
8.1 Amiga and the Motorola Port . . . . . . . . . . . 51
8.2 Microkernels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
8.3 From Alpha to Portability . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
8.4 Kernel Space and User Space . . . . . . . . . . . 53
8.5 GCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
8.6 Kernel Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
8.7 Portability Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
8.8 The Future of Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
9 Giving It Away 56
Robert Young
9.1 Where Did Red Hat Come From? . . . . . . . . 56
9.2 How Do You Make Money in Free Software? . . 56
9.3 We Are in the Commodity Product Business . . . 57
9.4 The Strategic Appeal of This Model to the Corporate
Computing Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
9.5 Licensing, Open Source, or Free Software . . . . 59
9.6 The Economic Engine Behind Development of
Open Source Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
9.7 Unique Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
9.8 The Great Unix Flaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
9.9 It’s Your Choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
10 Diligence, Patience, and Humility 62
Larry Wall
11 Open Source as a Business Strategy 70
Brian Behlendorf
11.1 It’s All About Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
11.2 Analyzing Your Goals for an Open-Source
Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
11.3 Evaluating the Market Need for Your Project . . 73
11.4 Open Source’s Position in the Spectrum of Software
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
11.5 Nature Abhors a Vacuum . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
11.6 Donate, or Go It Alone? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
11.7 Bootstrapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
11.8 What License to Use? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
11.9 Tools for Launching Open Source Projects . . . 78

12 The Open Source Definition 79
Bruce Perens
12.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
12.2 KDE, Qt, and Troll Tech . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
12.3 Analysis of the Open Source Definition . . . . . 81
12.4 Analysis of Licenses and Their Open Source
Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
12.5 Choosing a License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
12.6 The Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
13 Hardware, Software, and Infoware 87
Tim O’Reilly
14 Freeing the Source 91
Jim Hamerly and Tom Paquin with Susan Walton
14.1 Making It Happen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
14.2 Creating the License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
14.3 Mozilla.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
14.4 Behind the Curtain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
14.5 April Fool’s Day, 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
15 The Revenge of the Hackers 96
Eric S. Raymond
15.1 Beyond Brooks’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
15.2 Memes and Mythmaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
15.3 The Road to Mountain View . . . . . . . . . . . 97
15.4 The Origins of “Open Source” . . . . . . . . . . 98
15.5 The Accidental Revolutionary . . . . . . . . . . 98
15.6 Phases of the Campaign . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
15.7 The Facts on the Ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
15.8 Into the Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
A The Tanenbaum–Torvalds Debate 102
B The Open Source Definition, Version 1.0 123
C Contributors 127

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